Skip to Content

Publications

Preprints

📄 Reimer et al. (2022). Double standards in judging collective actions.
Abstract Collective action is a powerful force driving social change but often sparks contention about what actions are acceptable means to effect social change. In five studies (total N = 2,979), we investigated double standards in judging collective action—that is, whether observers will judge the same protest actions as more acceptable if the protesters are ingroup members and their cause aligns with the ingroup's interests (identity-based double standards) or if the protesters' cause aligns with the observers' ideological positions (ideology-based double standards). In two studies, we developed an instrument of 25 controversial protest actions, based in item response theory, to measure where people draw the line between acceptable and unacceptable forms of collective action. In three preregistered experiments, we used this instrument to test for double standards in judging collective action for workers' rights in the United Kingdom and for or against defunding the police and for or against restricting abortion in the United States. We found evidence for ideology-based, but not for identity-based, double standards: Participants judged the same protest actions to be more acceptable when the protesters' cause aligned with their own ideological position—but showed no consistent ingroup bias when judging collective action by ingroup and outgroup members. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding the often divided response to prominent social movements.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Branković, M., Essien, I., Goh, J. X., Goudeau, S., Lantos, N. A., & Veldman, J. (2022). Double standards in judging collective actions. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/28fyt
📄 Trager et al. (2022). The Moral Foundations Reddit Corpus.
Abstract Moral framing and sentiment can affect a variety of online and offline behaviors, including donation, pro-environmental action, political engagement, and even participation in violent protests. Various computational methods in Natural Language Processing (NLP) have been used to detect moral sentiment from textual data, but in order to achieve better performances in such subjective tasks, large sets of hand-annotated training data are needed. Previous corpora annotated for moral sentiment have proven valuable, and have generated new insights both within NLP and across the social sciences, but have been limited to Twitter. To facilitate improving our understanding of the role of moral rhetoric, we present the Moral Foundations Reddit Corpus, a collection of 16,123 Reddit comments that have been curated from 12 distinct subreddits, hand-annotated by at least three trained annotators for 8 categories of moral sentiment (i.e., Care, Proportionality, Equality, Purity, Authority, Loyalty, Thin Morality, Implicit/Explicit Morality) based on the updated Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) framework. We use a range of methodologies to provide baseline moral-sentiment classification results for this new corpus, e.g., cross-domain classification and knowledge transfer.
Reference Trager, J., Ziabari, A. S., Davani, A. M., Golazazian, P., Karimi-Malekabadi, F., Omrani, A., Li, Z., Kennedy, B., Reimer, N. K., Reyes, M., Cheng, K., Wei, M., Merrifield, C., Khosravi, A., Alvarez, E., & Dehghani, M. (2022). The Moral Foundations Reddit Corpus. arXiv https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2208.05545
📄 *Friehs, *Bracegirdle, Reimer, et al. (2022). The between-person and within-person effects of intergroup contact on outgroup attitudes: A multi-context examination.
Abstract The contact hypothesis proposes that intergroup contact improves outgroup attitudes. Existing cross-sectional and longitudinal studies provide valuable insights into the association between contact and attitudes, but are mostly uninformative regarding within-person and between-person effects. To investigate such effects, we applied (random-intercept) cross-lagged panel model analyses in two studies featuring diverse study characteristics. We found longitudinal associations between contact and attitudes in conventional cross-lagged panel models. These associations were, however, ascribed purely to between-person effects, not within-person effects, in random-intercept cross-lagged panel models. The lack of within-person effects conflicts with the contact hypothesis, which assumes that contact affects individuals’ attitudes. To investigate the possibility that between-person effects represent spurious correlations caused by confounders, we examined the extent to which demographic characteristics, intergroup ideologies and personality traits explain between-person effects. Our findings highlight the need to further investigate within-person effects and the factors that may explain between-person differences in contact and attitudes.
Reference Friehs, M., Bracegirdle, C., Reimer, N. K., Wölfer, R., Schmidt, P., Wagner, U., & Hewstone, M. (2022). The between-person and within-person effects of intergroup contact on outgroup attitudes: A multi-context examination. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/scwb5
📄 Kennedy, Reimer, & Dehghani. (2021). Explaining explainability: Interpretable machine learning for the behavioral sciences.
Abstract Predictive data modeling is a critical practice for the behavioral sciences; however, it is under-practiced in part due to the incorrect view that machine learning (ML) models are" black boxes," unable to be used for inferential purposes. In this work, we present an argument for the adoption of techniques from interpretable Machine Learning (ML) by behavioral scientists. Our argument is structured around the dispelling of three misconceptions, or myths, about interpretability. First, while ML models' interpretability is often viewed dichotomously, being either interpretable (eg, linear regression) or" black boxes" (e.g., neural networks), the reality is far more nuanced, affected by multiple factors which should jointly affect model choice. Second, we challenge the idea that interpretability is a necessary trade-off for predictive accuracy, reviewing recent methods from the field which are able to both model complex phenomena and expose the mechanism by which phenomena are related. And third, we present post hoc explanation, a recent approach that applies additional methods to black box models, countering the belief that black box models are inherently unusable for the behavioral sciences.
Reference Kennedy, B., Reimer, N. K., & Dehghani, M. (2021). Explaining explainability: Interpretable machine learning for the behavioral sciences. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/9h6qr
📄 *Rae, *Reimer, et al. (2020). Intergroup contact and implicit racial attitudes: Contact is related to less activation of biased evaluations but is unrelated to bias inhibition.
Abstract Two preregistered studies examined whether, why, and for whom intergroup contact is associated with more egalitarian implicit racial attitudes. Performance on implicit attitude measures depends on both the activation of group-relevant evaluations (e.g., positive ingroup and negative outgroup evaluations) and the inhibition of those evaluations. We used the Quad model to estimate the contributions of spontaneous evaluation and inhibition processes in the race attitude Implicit Association Test. In large samples of White and Black Americans (total N = 10,000), we tested which cognitive processes were related to respondents' contact experiences and whether respondent race moderated these relationships. Results showed that intergroup contact was associated with less activation of both negative outgroup evaluations and positive ingroup evaluations, but not with the inhibition of those evaluations. Respondent race did not moderate these associations. Our findings help explain the cognitive processes by which contact experiences improve implicit attitudes in minority and majority groups.
Reference Rae, J. R., Reimer, N. K., Calanchini, J., Lai, C. K., Rivers, A. M., Dasgupta, N., Hewstone, M., & Schmid, K. (2020). Intergroup contact and implicit racial attitudes: Contact is related to less activation of biased evaluations but is unrelated to bias inhibition. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/h4nxd

Forthcoming

📄 Sengupta, Reimer, et al. (in press). Does intergroup contact foster solidarity with the disadvantaged? A longitudinal analysis across seven years. American Psychologist.
Abstract Contact theory is a well-established paradigm for improving intergroup relations – positive contact between groups promotes social harmony by increasing intergroup warmth. A longstanding critique of this paradigm is that contact does not necessarily promote social equality. Recent research has blunted this critique by showing that contact correlates positively with political solidarity expressed by dominant groups towards subordinate groups, thus furthering the goal of equality. However, extant research precludes causal inferences because it conflates within-person change (people with higher contact subsequently expressing higher solidarity) and between-person stability (people with chronically high contact simultaneously expressing chronically high solidarity, and vice versa). We addressed this problem in a highly powered, seven-wave study using two contact measures and three solidarity measures (N = 22,646). Results showed no within-person change over a one-year period (inconsistent with a causal effect), but significant between-person stability (consistent with third-variable explanations). This reinforces doubts about contact as strategy for promoting equality.
Reference Sengupta, N. K., Reimer, N. K., Sibley, C. G. & Barlow, F. K. (in press). Does intergroup contact foster solidarity with the disadvantaged? A longitudinal analysis across seven years. American Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/c6r29
📄 Reimer et al. (in press). Moral values predict county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. American Psychologist.
Abstract Despite the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines, the United States has a depressed rate of vaccination as of September 2021. Understanding the psychology of vaccine refusal, particularly the possible sources of variation in vaccine resistance across U.S. sub-populations, can aid in designing effective intervention strategies to increase vaccination across different regions. Here, we demonstrate that county-level moral values (i.e., Care, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, and Purity) are associated with COVID-19 vaccination rates across 3,106 counties in the contiguous United States. Specifically, in line with our hypothesis, we find that fewer people are vaccinated in counties whose residents prioritize moral concerns about bodily and spiritual purity. Further, we find that stronger endorsements of concerns about fairness and loyalty to the group predict higher vaccination rates. These associations are robust after adjusting for structural barriers to vaccination, the demographic make-up of the counties, and their residents' political voting behavior. Our findings have implications for health communication, intervention strategies based on targeted messaging, and our fundamental understanding of the moral psychology of vaccination hesitancy and behavior.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Atari, M., Karimi-Malekabadi, F., Trager, J., Kennedy, B., Graham, J., & Dehghani, M. (in press). Moral values predict county-level COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. American Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0001020

2022

📄 Reimer & Sengupta. (2022). Meta-analysis of the “ironic” effects of intergroup contact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Abstract Growing evidence suggests that intergroup contact, psychology’s most-researched paradigm for reducing prejudice, has the ‘ironic’ effect of reducing support for social change in disadvantaged groups. We conducted a preregistered meta-analytic test of this effect across 98 studies with 140 samples of 213,085 disadvantaged-group members. As predicted, intergroup contact was, on average, associated with less perceived injustice (r = -.07), collective action (r = -.06), and support for reparative policies (r = -.07). However, these associations were small, variable, and consistent with alternative explanations. Across outcomes, 25–36% of studies found positive associations with intergroup contact. Moderator analyses explained about a third of the between-sample variance, showing that, at least for perceived injustice, associations with intergroup contact were most consistently negative in studies that measured direct, qualitatively positive contact among adults. We also found evidence for an alternative explanation for the apparent ‘ironic’ effects of intergroup contact as, after controlling for the positive association of negative contact with support for social change, positive contact was no longer associated with any of the outcomes. We close by discussing strengths and limitations of the available evidence and by highlighting open questions about the relationship between intergroup contact and support for social change in disadvantaged groups.
Reference Reimer, N. K. & Sengupta, N. K. (2022). Meta-analysis of the “ironic” effects of intergroup contact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000404
📄 Atari, Reimer, et al. (2022). Pathogens are linked to human moral systems across time and space. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology.
Abstract Infectious diseases have been an impending threat to the survival of individuals and groups throughout our evolutionary history. As a result, humans have developed psychological pathogen-avoidance mechanisms and groups have developed societal norms that respond to the presence of disease-causing microorganisms in the environment. In this work, we demonstrate that morality plays a central role in the cultural and psychological architectures that help humans avoid pathogens. We present a collection of studies which together provide an integrated understanding of the socio-ecological and psychological impacts of pathogens on human morality. Specifically, in Studies 1 (2,834 U.S. counties) and 2 (67 nations), we show that regional variation in pathogen prevalence is consistently related to aggregate moral Purity. In Study 3, we use computational linguistic methods to show that pathogen-related words co-occur with Purity words across multiple languages. In Studies 4 (n = 513) and 5 (n = 334), we used surveys and social psychological experimentation to show that pathogen-avoidance attitudes are correlated with Purity. Finally, in Study 6, we found that historical prevalence of pathogens is linked to Care, Loyalty, and Purity. We argue that particular adaptive moral systems are developed and maintained in response to the threat of pathogen occurrence in the environment. We draw on multiple methods to establish connections between pathogens and moral codes in multiple languages, experimentally induced situations, individual differences, U.S. counties, 67 countries, and historical periods over the last century.
Reference Atari, M., Reimer, N. K., Graham, J., Hoover, J., Kennedy, B., Davani, A. M., Karimi-Malekabadi, F., Birjandi, S., & Dehghani, M. (2022). Pathogens are linked to human moral systems across time and space. Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 3, 100060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cresp.2022.100060
📄 *Albzour, *Bady, et al. (2022). Talking to a (segregation) wall: Intergroup contact and attitudes toward normalization with Israelis among Palestinians from the occupied territories. Political Psychology.
Abstract This article examines how Palestinians' intergroup contact experiences relate to their attitudes towards interactions with Israelis (i.e., normalization). We draw on four recent advances in intergroup contact literature. First, recent research indicates that positive contact can impede disadvantaged groups' motivation to challenge inequalities. Second, increased endorsement of normalization mediates this sedative effect of positive contact on motivation to resist in the West Bank. Third, negative contact has been related to increased motivation for social change. Fourth, institutions and societal norms shape the meaning of intergroup contact and its effect on intergroup relations. We hypothesize that negative experiences at checkpoints can act as reminders of institutionalized inequalities and thus attenuate sedative effects. Furthermore, we explore the contextual boundary conditions of such reminder effects. Analyses of cross-sectional survey conducted among a representative sample (N = 1,000) in the West Bank including Jerusalem showed that (1) positive intergroup contact related to normalization endorsement (sedative effect), (2) negative intergroup contact related to decreased normalization endorsement (mobilizing effect), and (3) negative contact experiences (at checkpoints) canceled out the effect of positive contact (reminder effect), but only in Jerusalem. Results suggest that the impacts of intergroup contact need to be interpreted in light of institutionalized forms of group inequality and segregation.
Reference *Albzour, M., *Bady, Z., Elcheroth, E., Penic, S., Reimer, N. K., & Green, E. G. T. (2022). Talking to a (segregation) wall: Intergroup contact and attitudes toward normalization with Israelis among Palestinians from the occupied territories. Political Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12816
📄 Bracegirdle, Reimer, et al. (2022). Disentangling contact and socialization effects on outgroup attitudes in diverse friendship networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Abstract Friendships with members of our own group (ingroup) and other groups (outgroups) shape our attitudes toward outgroups. Research on intergroup contact has shown that the numbers of outgroup and ingroup friends we have influence our outgroup attitudes, whereas research on socialization has shown that the attitudes held by our friends influence our outgroup attitudes. Past research, however, examined these processes in isolation, which precludes discerning whether having friends, or the attitudes held by our friends, are both important in shaping our outgroup attitudes, and, if so, which is more important. To disentangle these effects, we conducted a 5-wave social network study in 2 ethnically diverse schools (N = 1,170 students). By applying a novel longitudinal coevolution model, we were able to separate the effects of having ingroup and outgroup friends (contact effects), and the effects of those friends’ attitudes (socialization effects), on individuals’ outgroup attitudes, while controlling for friendship selection processes. In so doing, we found that it is principally the attitudes of ingroup friends—not outgroup friends’ attitudes or having ingroup and outgroup friends alone—that predict individuals’ outgroup attitudes. Our findings have important theoretical implications, as we demonstrate that combining the divergent approaches of intergroup contact and socialization enables us to better understand outgroup attitude development. Our findings also have practical implications, as we show that, even in diverse environments, individuals rely primarily on friends from their own group to inform their attitudes toward other groups
Reference Bracegirdle, C., Reimer, N. K., Wölfer, R., van Zalk, M., & Hewstone, M. (2021). Disentangling contact and socialization effects on outgroup attitudes in diverse friendship networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000240
📄 Reimer et al. (2022). Shared Education as a contact-based intervention to improve intergroup relations among adolescents in post-conflict Northern Ireland. Developmental Psychology.
Abstract Past research has shown that intergroup contact can be a promising intervention to improve intergroup relations and that contact-based interventions might be most effective during adolescence. In post-conflict Northern Ireland, widespread residential segregation and a largely separate school system limit opportunities for intergroup contact between adolescents from the Catholic and Protestant communities. We evaluated whether a large-scale intervention to facilitate intergroup contact between students attending separate schools (the ‘Shared Education’ program) improves a range of outcomes relevant for intergroup relations in Northern Ireland. We conducted a five-wave longitudinal, quasi-experimental study that followed a large sample of school students (N = 5,159, Mage = 12.4, age range: 10–14 years; 2,988 girls, 2,044 boys) from 56 predominantly Catholic or Protestant schools from sixth to tenth grade. We compared the developmental trajectories of students who, in ninth (14–15 years) and tenth (15–16 years) grade, shared some classes with students from the other community, as part of the program, to students who did not. We found that participating in shared classes had a medium-size, positive effect on the amount of intergroup contact students had outside of class, and small, positive effects on students’ outgroup attitudes, outgroup trust, and intergroup empathy (but not on their intergroup anxiety, future contact intentions, deprovincialization, or multicultural beliefs). Our findings show that a school-based program of shared education can provide a viable and effective intervention to facilitate intergroup contact, improve intergroup relations, and foster social integration among adolescents at a large scale in a post-conflict society.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Hughes, J., Blaylock, D., Donnelly, C., Wölfer, R., & Hewstone, M. (2022). Shared Education as a contact-based intervention to improve intergroup relations among adolescents in postconflict Northern Ireland. Developmental Psychology, 58(1), 193–208. http://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001274
📄 Reimer et al. (2022). Intergroup contact fosters more inclusive social identities. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations.
Abstract We examined how people construct their social identities from multiple group memberships—and whether intergroup contact can reduce prejudice by fostering more inclusive social identities. South Indian participants (N = 351) from diverse caste backgrounds viewed 24 identity cards, each representing a person with whom participants shared none, one, two, or all of three group memberships (caste, religion, nationality). Participants judged each person as “us” or “not us,” showing whom they included in their ingroup, and whom they excluded. Participants tended to exclude caste and religious minorities, replicating persistent social divides. Bridging these divides, cross-group friendship was associated with more inclusive identities which, in turn, were associated with more positive relations between an advantaged, an intermediate, and a disadvantaged caste group. Negative contact was associated with less inclusive identities. Contact and identity processes, however, did not affect entrenched opposition to (or undermine support for) affirmative action in advantaged and disadvantaged groups.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Kamble, S. V., Schmid, K., & Hewstone, M. (2022). Intergroup contact fosters more inclusive social identities. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 25(1), 133–157. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430220960795
📕 Reimer et al. (2022). Self-categorization and social identification: Making sense of us and them. Theories in Social Psychology.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Schmid, K., Hewstone, M., & Al Ramiah, A. (2022). Self-categorization and social identification: Making sense of us and them. In D. Chadee (Ed.), Theories in social psychology (2nd ed., pp. 273–295). Wiley-Blackwell.

2021

📄 Reimer et al. (2021). Building social cohesion through intergroup contact: Evaluation of a large-scale intervention to improve intergroup relations among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Abstract Past research has found intergroup contact to be a promising intervention to reduce prejudice and has identified adolescence as the developmental period during which intergroup contact is most effective. Few studies, however, have tested whether contact-based interventions can be scaled up to improve intergroup relations at a large scale. The present research evaluated whether and when the National Citizen Service, a large-scale contact-based intervention reaching one in six 15- to 17-year-olds in England and Northern Ireland, builds social cohesion among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. In a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 2099; Mage = 16.37, age range: 15–17 years; 58% female), this study used a pretest–posttest design with a double pretest to assess the intervention’s effectiveness. Controlling for test–retest effects, this study found evidence that the intervention decreased intergroup anxiety and increased outgroup perspective-taking—but not that it affected intergroup attitudes, intergroup trust, or perceptions of relative (dis-)advantage. These (small) effects were greater for adolescents who had experienced less positive contact before participating and who talked more about group differences while participating. These findings suggest that the intervention might not immediately improve intergroup relations—but that it has the potential to prepare adolescents, especially those with less positive contact experiences before the intervention, for more positive intergroup interactions in the future.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Love, A., Wölfer, R., & Hewstone, M. (2021). Building social cohesion through intergroup contact: Evaluation of a large-scale intervention to improve intergroup relations among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(6), 1049–1067. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01400-8

2020

📄 Birtel, Reimer, et al. (2020). Change in school ethnic diversity and intergroup relations: The transition from segregated elementary to mixed secondary school for majority and minority students. European Journal of Social Psychology.
Abstract This research examined the impact of a change in school diversity on school children's intergroup relations. A longitudinal survey tracked 551 White British and Asian British students (Mage = 11.32) transitioning from elementary (time 1) to secondary (time 2) school in an ethnically segregated town in the United Kingdom. We estimated a multivariate, multilevel model. A cross-sectional comparison of segregated schools and a mixed elementary school at time 1 revealed that both Asian and White British in the mixed school reported more positive intergroup relations. A longitudinal analysis found that the transition from segregated elementary to mixed secondary schools was associated with Asian British developing more positive intergroup relations. White British reported overall less positive intergroup relations, although only trust decreased; evidence from other measures remains inconclusive. The findings are important for understanding early stages of diversity exposure, and the impact of changing diversity levels on majority and minority groups.
Reference Birtel, M. D., Reimer, N. K., Wölfer, R., & Hewstone, M. (2020). Change in school ethnic diversity and intergroup relations: The transition from segregated elementary to mixed secondary school for majority and minority students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 50(1), 160–176. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2609

2018

📕 Reimer. (2018). Can intergroup contact foster more continuous, fluid, and inclusive social identities? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Oxford.
Abstract This thesis examines whether intergroup contact can foster more continuous, fluid, and inclusive social identities—and, if so, how more continuous, fluid, and inclusive social identities relate to intergroup bias and support for social change. Chapter 1 introduces relevant research on social identification along a single category and across multiple categories, and develops the hypotheses tested throughout this thesis. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the empirical research, and introduces the statistical methods used to analyse findings from that research. Chapter 3 reports research developing and validating a novel measure of social identity continuity and fluidity, and examines whether contact with sexual and gender minorities fosters more continuous and fluid conceptions of sexuality and gender. Studies 1–3 found that intergroup contact was associated with more continuous and fluid social identities, but that more continuous and fluid social identities were not, in turn, associated with less intergroup bias. Chapter 4 reports research testing whether contact with caste or religious outgroups fosters more inclusive social identities in South India. Study 4 found that, as hypothesised, cross-group friendship was associated with more inclusive identities, while more inclusive identities were associated with less intergroup bias. Chapter 5 reports research testing how intergroup contact relates to support for social change in advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Studies 1 and 3 found that for disadvantaged-group members, negative contact, but not positive contact, was associated with more collective action. For advantaged-group members, positive contact predicted more solidarity-based collective action. More continuous and fluid identities did not mediate any of these relationships. Study 4 found neither intergroup contact nor more inclusive identities to be associated with support for or opposition to social change. Chapter 6 summarises and discusses the research presented in this thesis, highlighting its implications for intergroup relations research.
Reference Reimer, N. K. (2018). Can intergroup contact foster more continuous, fluid, and inclusive social identities? [Doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford]. Oxford University Research Archive. https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:2c5ca594-7856-4991-b3c1-6668a704d800

2017

📄 Reimer et al. (2017). Intergroup contact and social change: Implications of negative and positive contact for collective action in advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Abstract Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 (N = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students’ engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 (N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students’ collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students’ LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.
Reference Reimer, N. K., Becker, J. C., Benz, A., Christ, O., Dhont, K., Klocke, U., Neji, S., Rychlowska, M., Schmid, K., & Hewstone, M. (2017). Intergroup contact and social change: Implications of negative and positive contact for collective action in advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(1), 121–136. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616721667647

* equal contribution
supervisee/advisee